304 BCE-232 BCE

Ashoka Aśoka ( 304 – 232 BCE), popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was the third Mauryan Emperor of Magadha in the Indian Subcontinent during c. 268 to 232 BCE. His empire covered a large part of the Indian subcontinent, stretching from present-day Afghanistan in the west to present-day Bangladesh in the east, with its capital at Pataliputra. A patron of Buddhism, he is credited with playing an important role in the spread of Buddhism across ancient Asia.

Ashoka's edicts state that during his eighth regnal year (c. 260 BCE), he conquered Kalinga after a brutal war. Ashoka subsequently devoted himself to the propagation of “dhamma" or righteous conduct, the major theme of the edicts. Ashoka's edicts suggest that a few years after the Kalinga War, he was gradually drawn towards Buddhism. Ashoka's existence as a historical emperor had almost been forgotten, but since the decipherment of sources written in Brahmi script in the 19th century, Ashoka holds a reputation as one of the greatest Indian Emperors. The Emblem of the modern Republic of India is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka. Ashoka's wheel, the Ashoka Chakra is adopted at the centre of the National Flag of India.

Bappa Rawal

713 AD-753 AD

Bappa Rawal (8th century) was a king of the Mewar Kingdom in Rajasthan, India. The bardic chronicles describe him as a member of the Guhila Rajput Clan, and some of them consider him to be the founder of the Guhila Dynasty. He is credited with repelling the Arab invasion of India. Different historians have identified him with various rulers of the Guhila dynasty, including Kalabhoja, Shiladitya, and Khumana.

Shri Bappa Rawal Temple is dedicated to Bappa Rawal is in Mathatha, Rajasthan located close to the Eklinji temple, 24 kilometres north of Udaipur.



724 CE-760 CE

Lalitaditya alias Muktapida 724 CE–760 CE was a monarch belonging to the Karkota dynasty of Kashmir region in the Indian Subcontinent. Further offering support to the Tang Dynasty. The Chinese emperor bestowed him with the title of 'King’.

The 12th-century chronicler Kalhana characterizes Lalitaditya as a “world conqueror", crediting him with extensive conquests and miraculous powers in his Rajatarangini. According to Kalhana, Lalitaditya defeated the central Indian king Yashovarman and then marched to eastern and southern parts of India. He subjugated several more rulers on his way back to Kashmir, and then subdued several northern kings.

Naiki Devi

Naiki Devi

Naiki Devi was the regent queen of Chaulukya dynasty during her son Mularaja's infancy from 1175. She was a queen of the Chaulukya king Ajayapala. In 1175, Muhammad of Ghor crossed the Indus, capturing Multan and Uch before penetrating in present-day Gujarat through the Thar Desert in 1178. Muhammad of Ghor was routed by Mularaja II and his Rajput allies from Nadol, Jalore and Abu at the Battle of Kasahrade. The location of battle is identified as a village named Kayandra near foothills of Abu hills. Persian chroniclers Minhaj al-Siraj and Ferishta mentioned that Muhammad of Ghor was routed by Bhima II (Mularaja brother and successor), although the epigraphic evidences confirmed that Mularaja II was ruling at the time of Ghurid invasion.

A later account of Merutunga states that Naiki devi took her son Mularaja in her lap and marched at the head of the Chaulukya army and defeated the Ghurid forces at Gāḍarāraghaṭṭa pass and secured for her son title of "vanquisher of the king of Ghazni".

Shoorveer Rana Sanga

Shoorveer Rana Sanga


Sangram Singh I (IAST: Rāṇā Saṅgrāma Siṃha; c. 1482 – 1528 CE), popularly known as Rana Sanga or Maharana Sanga, was an Indian ruler from the Sisodia dynasty. He ruled Mewar, the traditional territory of the Guhilas in present-day north-western India. However, through his capable rule his kingdom turned into one of the greatest powers of Northern India in the early 16th century.[3] He controlled parts of present-day Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh with the capital being Chittor.[4] His reign was admired by several of his contemporaries, including Babur, who described him as the "greatest Indian King" of that time.

Maharana Pratap Singh


Pratap Singh I ( 9 May 1540- 19 January 1597) popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was a king of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present-day state of Rajasthan. He is notable for leading the Rajput resistance against the expansionist policy of the Mughal Emperor Akbar including the Battle of Haldighati and Battle of Dewair which have turned him into a folk hero.

In stark contrast to other Rajput rulers who accommodated and formed alliances with the various Muslim dynasties in the subcontinent, by the time Pratap ascended to the throne, Mewar was going through a long standing conflict with the Mughals. Maharana Pratap Singh, gained distinction for his refusal to form any political alliance with the Mughal Empire and his resistance to Muslim domination. The conflicts between Pratap Singh and Akbar led to the Battle of Haldighati. Bhama Shah (1547–1600) was a noted general, minister and close aide of Maharana Pratap Singh. The financial support provided by him allowed Maharana Pratap to restore his army and reclaim much of his lost territory.

Tanaji Malusare

Tanaji Malusare


Tanhaji Malusare was a warrior and commander of Shivaji. A local poet Tulsidas, wrote a powder describing Subhedar Tanhaji's heroics and sacrifice of life in the Battle of Sinhagad, which has since made him a popular figure in Indian folklore.
Malusare was with Shivajiraje Bhosale around the time when he took his pledge at Rayareshwar's temple to establish a sovereign kingdom. He was part of Maratha troops in the battle of Partapgad, where Shivaji Maharaj killed Afzal Khan.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj


Shivaji I (19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680) was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha Clan.Shivaji carved out his own independent kingdom from the declining Adilshahi Sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned the Chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad Fort.

Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, the Sulatanate of Golkonda, the Sultanate of Bijapur and the European colonial powers. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil administration with well-structured administrative institutions. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions, court conventions and promoted the use of the Marathi and Sanskrit languages, replacing Persian at court and in administration.

Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj

Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj


Sambhaji (14 May 1657 – 11 March 1689), also known as Shambhuraje was the second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, ruling from 1681 to 1689. He was the eldest son of Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire, as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Abyssinians of Janjira, Wadiyars of Mysore and the Portuguese Empire in Goa.

After Sambhaji's death, his brother Rajaram succeeded him as the next Chhatrapati and continued the Mughal-Maratha Wars.

Santaji Ghorpade

Santaji Ghorpade


Santaji Ghorpade (1660–1696) was a Maratha general and held the esteemed position of the 7th Senapati within the Maratha Empire during the reign of Chattrapati Rajaram. He is widely regarded as one of the foremost experts in Guerrilla warfare. Santaji Ghorpade, in collaboration with Dhanaji Jadhav, conducted a series of successful campaigns against the Mughals from 1689 to 1696. His strategic acumen was demonstrated through the adept utilization of tactics such as guerrilla warfare, ambushes, and swift mobility, ultimately resulting in effective defeats of the Mughal army. In recognition of his valor, Rajaram bestowed upon him the title of Mamlakat-Madar in 1690.
In the beginning of the Rajaram's reign in 1689, Santaji had attained the rank of Pancha Hajari officer i.e. commander of 5,000 soldiers. In September 1689, along with Dhanaji, Santaji attacked Aurangzeb's General Sheikh Nizam who had placed a siege around the fort of Panhala.
Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh


Gobind Das 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was the tenth and last human Sikh Guru. He was a warrior, poet, and philosopher. In 1675, at the age of nine he was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs after his father Guru Teg Bahadur was executed by Emperor Aurangzeb. His father was the ninth Sikh Guru. His four biological sons died during his lifetime – two in battle and two executed by the Mughal governor Wazir Khan.

Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh is credited with the Dasam Granth whose hymns are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals. He is also credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's primary holy religious scripture and the eternal Guru.

Baba Banda Singh Bahadur

Baba Banda Singh Bahadur


Banda Singh Bahadur (27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716), was a Sikh warrior and a commander of the Khalsa army. At age 15, he left home to become an ascetic, and was given the name Madho Das Bairagi. He established a monastery at Nanded, on the bank of the river Godavari. In 1707, Guru Gobind Singh accepted an invitation to meet Bahadur Shah I in southern India, he visited Banda Singh Bahadur in 1708. Banda became disciple of Guru Gobind Singh and was given a new name, Gurbaksh Singh, after the baptism ceremony. He is popularly known as Banda Singh Bahadur. He was given five arrows by the Guru as a blessing for the battles ahead. He came to Khanda, Sonipat and assembled a fighting force and led the struggle against the Mughal Empire.

His first major action was the sacking of the Mughal provincial capital, Samana in November 1709. After establishing his authority and Sikh Misl in Punjab Banda Singh Bahadur abolished the Zamindari system, and granted property rights to the tillers of the land.


Ahilyabai Holkar


Ahilya Bai Holkar (31 May 1725 – 13 August 1795) was the hereditary noble queen of the Maratha Empire, in early modern India. She established Mahashwar (in Madhya Pradesh) as the seat of Holkar Dynasty.
After the demise of her husband Khande Rao Holkar and father-in-law Malhar Rao Holkar, Ahilya Bai herself undertook the affairs of Holkar dynasty. She defended the Malwa state against intruders and personally led armies into battle, with Tukoji Rao Holkar as her military commander.

Ahilya Bai was a great pioneer and builder of Hindu Temples who constructed hundreds of temples and Dharamashalas.

Tatya Tope

Tatya Tope


Tantia Tope (also spelled Tatya Tope, 16 February 1814 — 18 April 1859) was a notable commander in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.Born as Ramachandra Panduranga Yewalkar to a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin family, in Yeola, (near Nasik). Tantia took on the title Tope, meaning commanding officer. His first name Tantia means General. A personal adherent of Nana Saheb of Bithoor, he progressed with the Gwaliar contingent after the British reoccupied Kanpur (then known as Cawnpore) and forced General Windham to retreat from the city. Later on, Tantia Tope came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However, he was defeated by General Napier's British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar, he abandoned the campaign.
Mangal Pandey

Mangal Pandey


Mangal Pandey was an Indian soldier who played a key role in the events taking place just before the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. He was a sepoy (infantryman) in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment of the British East India Company. In 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to remember him. On the afternoon of 29 March 1857, Lieutenant Baugh, Adjutant of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry, then stationed at Barrackpore was informed that several men of his regiment were in an excited state. Further, it was reported to him that one of them, Mangal Pandey, was pacing in front of the regiment's guard room by the parade ground, armed with a loaded musket, calling upon the men to rebel and threatening to shoot the first European that he set eyes on.
Rani Lakshmi Bai

Rani of Jhansi (Lakshmibai Newalkar)


Lakshmibai Newalkar, the Rani of Jhansi born Manikarnika Tambe; 19 November 1828 — 18 June 1858) was the Maharani consort of the princely state of Jhansi in Maratha Empire from 1843 to 1853 by marriage to Maharaja Gangadhar Rao Newalkar. She was one of the leading figures in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, who became a national hero and symbol of resistance to the British rule in India for Indian nationalists. The Rani was unwilling to cede control and joined the rebellion against the British in 1857. She led the successful defense of Jhansi against Company allies.
Subhash Chandra Bose



Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiance of British authority in India made him a hero among many Indians, but his wartime alliances with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a legacy vexed by authoritarianism, anti-Semitis, and military failure. The honorific Netaji was first applied to Bose in Germany in early 1942—by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion and by the German and Indian officials in the Special Bureau for India in Berlin. It is now used throughout India.
Chandra Shekhar Azad

Chandra Shekhar Azad


Chandra Shekhar Tiwari (23 July 1906 – 27 February 1931), popularly known as Chandra Shekhar Azad, was an Indian revolutionary who reorganised the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under its new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after the death of its founder, Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders,Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan. He hailed from Bardarka village in Unnao district of United Provinces and his parents were Sitaram Tiwari and Jagrani Devi. He often used the pseudonym "Balraj" while signing pamphlets issued as the commander-in-chief of the HSRA.
After the suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Mahatma Gandhi, Azad became disappointed. He met a young revolutionary, Manmath Nath Gupta, who introduced him to Ram Prasad Bismil who had formed the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), a revolutionary organization. He then became an active member of the HRA.

Bhagat Singh


Bhagat Singh (27 September 1907– 23 March 1931) was a charismatic Indian revolutionary who participated in the mistaken murder of a junior British police officer in what was to be retaliation for the death of an Indian nationalist. He later took part in a largely symbolic bombing of the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi and a hunger strike in jail, which—on the back of sympathetic coverage in Indian-owned newspapers—turned him into a household name in the Punjab region, and after his execution at age 23 into a martyr and folk hero in Northern India. Borrowing ideas from Bolshevism and anarchism, he electrified a growing militancy in India in the 1930s, and prompted urgent introspection within the Indian National Congress's nonviolent but eventually successful campaign for India’s Independence.